Tunnel progress as HS2’s ‘Florence’ and ‘Cecilia’ reach Chesham Road

·       Giant tunnelling machine – named ‘Florence’ – completes 10-mile drive under the Chilterns in 2 years and 9 months.

·       Download new drone footage and images of the breakthrough at the North Portal, near South Heath, Buckinghamshire

·       3 million cubic metres of material excavated from the tunnels to be reused for ambitious chalk grassland restoration project.

HS2’s first giant tunnelling machine – which launched almost 3 years ago – broke through today at the end of her 10-mile (16km) journey under the Chilterns, excavating the longest tunnel on the ambitious new rail project.

The enormous 2,000 tonne Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM), named ‘Florence’, is one of 10 machines excavating the 32 miles of tunnel on the new railway linking London Euston with Birmingham and was the first to launch, in May 2021.

The breakthrough is a major milestone for the HS2 project, which will almost halve journey times between Britain’s two largest cities, while freeing up space for more local services on the most crowded part of the existing West Coast Main Line.

Two identical TBMs were used to create the twin-bore Chiltern tunnel, which stretches from the South Portal near the M25 to South Heath in Buckinghamshire. Parallel tunnels will carry north and south bound trains with a second TBM, named ‘Cecilia’, due to breakthrough in the coming weeks.

Rail Minister Huw Merriman said:

“This ground-breaking moment for HS2 demonstrates significant progress on the country’s largest infrastructure project, with ‘Florence’ paving the way for faster, greener journeys between London and Birmingham while supporting hundreds of jobs and apprenticeships along the way.

“Today’s breakthrough of HS2’s longest tunnel highlights the momentum behind the project and the achievement is testament to the hard work and dedication of the 450-strong team helping deliver the line that will transform rail travel for generations to come.”

Designed specifically for the geology under the Chilterns, each TBM is an underground factory – excavating the tunnel, lining it with 56,000 pre-cast concrete segments and grouting them into place as it moves forward at an average speed of 16m per day.

Four similar TBMs are being used for the London approach tunnels, while another two will work on Birmingham’s Bromford tunnel. Preparations are also underway for the launch of two more machines to excavate the Euston tunnels.

The breakthrough comes a week after HS2 published new research which shows how the impending arrival of high speed rail will drive a £10 billion economic boost for the West Midlands during the next 10 years, with a huge increase in new development around the two station sites.

HS2 Ltd Executive Chairman, Sir Jon Thompson, said:

“Today is an incredible day of HS2 and I’d like to thank the hundreds of people who’ve worked so hard over many years to make it happen. Once complete, HS2 will dramatically improve journeys between our two largest cities and also free up space on the existing mainline for more local trains.

“We’ve still got a lot of work to do, but historic moments like today really underline the huge amount of progress that’s been made and the fantastic engineering skills we have on the project.”

Both machines launched from the South Portal and are operated by HS2’s main works contractor, Align – a joint venture formed of three international infrastructure companies: Bouygues Travaux Publics, Sir Robert McAlpine, and VolkerFitzpatrick. The machines are made by TBM specialists Herrenknecht, in Germany.

Each TBM is operated by a crew of around 17 people, working in shifts to keep the machines running 24/7. They are supported by over 100 people on the surface, managing the logistics and maintaining the smooth progress of the tunnelling operation.

In total, more than 450 people have worked on the tunnels and in support teams on the surface over the last 3 years. This includes a dedicated team which produced 112,000 precision-engineered, fibre-reinforced concrete tunnel wall segments at a purpose build temporary factory at the South Portal who completed their work just before Christmas – and a team processing the spoil from the tunnels.

Align’s Project Director, Daniel Altier said:

“The typical drive for a TBM is 5-6km and therefore the challenges in completing at 16km drive should not be underestimated.

 “Florence and her sister TBM Cecilia were designed in partnership with Herrenknecht. They incorporate a number of innovations and technologies that have been introduced on TBMs in the UK for the first time, to enhance performance and safety. This includes ‘semi-continuous boring’, allowing our TBMs to build the rings that line the tunnels without pausing.

“The mining of the tunnel is a fantastic achievement for not only the Align tunnelling team but also the earthworks team who have managed chalk excavated from the tunnels and placed on site, along with many other supporting functions. I would also like to acknowledge our supply chain partners, including TGT that provided the teams to operate the TBMs and MS with whom we designed and operated the slurry treatment plant, with 24 filter presses it is the largest in the world.’

The 3 million cubic metres of chalk and other material removed during the tunnelling is being used to create an ambitious grassland restoration project at the south portal, which will include 127 hectares of new landscaping, wildlife habitat and biodiverse chalk grassland.

The chalk, which is pumped back through the tunnel in a slurry mixed with water, is processed at a slurry treatment plant at the south portal site where the flint is removed and water extracted before it can be reused in landscaping.

Chalk grassland – a type of calcareous grassland – is habitat of international conservation importance mainly found on limestone and chalk valleys of south-east England and the Isle of Wight.

Lime-rich, but low in nutrients, the thin soil holds little water and heats up quickly. These conditions encourage a huge variety of smaller herbs and wildflowers and over 40 species can be found in one square metre of grassland, including some of the UK’s rarest orchids and invertebrates. Only 700 hectares of chalk grassland exist across the whole of the Chilterns AONB.

At its deepest point, the tunnel is 80m beneath the Chilterns and passes under the M25, local railway lines and twice under the River Misbourne. Extensive water quality, groundwater level and surface water flow monitoring was put in place prior to the start of construction, and there has been no significant change to water quality during the tunnelling work.

Align is also delivering the record-breaking Colne Valley Viaduct which will be the longest railway bridge in the UK, with construction of the deck now over two-thirds complete.

Published on 19 Dec 2023


HS2 today confirmed that ‘Florence’ and ‘Cecilia’ – the two giant tunnelling machines digging the project’s longest tunnels – have reached the Chesham Road intervention shaft, on track to complete their mammoth 10-mile journey under the Chilterns next year.

The enormous 2,000 tonne machines are now 90% of the way through their two-and-a-half-year drive between the M25 and South Heath in Buckinghamshire to create the twin-bore tunnel.

In total, HS2 will require 64 miles of tunnelling, with five Tunnel Boring Machines (TBMs) already in the ground, three more ready to go and another two due to be delivered next year. Once complete, HS2 will help improve connections between London, Birmingham and the North while creating space on the most congested part of the existing West Coast Main Line.

Each Chiltern TBM is a 170m long self-contained underground factory, digging the tunnel, lining it with 56,000 concrete segments to form rings and grouting them into place as it moves forward.

Designed specifically for the geology of the Chilterns, the machines were launched in Summer 2021 from a site near the M25 and have already excavated approximately 2.8 million cubic metres of chalk and flint.

As well as digging and lining the tunnels, engineers have also completed the excavation of four other shafts that will provide ventilation and emergency access near Chalfont St Peter, Chalfont St Giles, Amersham and Little Missenden with work now happening to create the internal structures and the headhouses on the surface.

Mark Clapp, HS2 Ltd’s Head of Delivery, said:

“Once complete, HS2 will transform journeys between London and the West Midlands and free up space on the busiest part of the West Coast Main Line. We’re making great progress in the Chilterns, with 90% of the tunnel excavation now complete. That’s an incredible engineering achievement and I look forward to the breakthrough, next year.”

The 42m deep shaft near Great Missenden – which the TBM has now reached – is largely hidden behind a hedge and line of mature oak trees next to the B485.

A ‘headhouse’ will be built on top of the shaft designed to resemble local farm buildings with new planting to help blend it into the surrounding landscape. The Chesham Road shaft will only be used for emergency access, while the others will also contain ventilation equipment.

The two TBMs are operated by, Align – a joint venture formed of Bouygues Travaux Publics, Sir Robert McAlpine, and VolkerFitzpatrick.

Each machine has a crew of around 15 people, working in shifts and supported by over 100 people on the surface, managing the logistics and maintaining the smooth progress of the tunnelling operation.

Didier Jacques, Align’s Underground Construction Director said:

“With our first TBM Florence having reached our fifth shaft at Chesham Road and our second TBM Cecilia due to reach the shaft shortly, this a great achievement for not only the tunnelling team, but also the supporting teams on the surface at the South Portal, manufacturing the concrete segments required to line the tunnels and processing the spoil from the tunnels.

“We are looking forward to continuing the good progress with the TBMs, which are due to complete their drives early next year.

Approximately 3 million cubic metres of material – mostly chalk and flint – will be excavated during the construction of the tunnels and used for landscaping. Once construction is complete, the temporary buildings at the south portal will be removed and the site landscaped with around 90 hectares of wildlife-rich chalk grassland habitats.

Chalk grassland used to be widespread across the hills of southeast England and are considered habitat of international conservation significance with just 700ha left across the Chilterns.

Alongside the Chiltern tunnels, two TBMs are currently excavating the London tunnels with two more due to launch soon. One TBM is excavating the Bromford tunnel in Birmingham with another ready to go. Two TBMs which will excavate the Euston tunnels are due to be delivered to site next year.